Friday, December 20, 2019

Part Two: The Development of the Orders

Summary: Part One of this essay discussed sources for 14 triumphs postulated to be the original sequence before adding seven more and the Fool: the four cardinal virtues, the six subjects of Petrarch’s Trionfi poems, the two social hierarchies, and previous games using trumps. In particular the game described by Marziano yields in this case 4x3 matrix, with a virtue and Petrarchan in each row plus two Petrarchans above. Such a structure fits the orders of Florence and Bologna best. In Lombardy and Ferrara, it is proposed, the horizontal associations in rows of the original matrix became vertical ones by columns. The three theological virtues are also incorporated, as in the Cary-Yale deck and Minchiate. Then celestials take the place of theologicals, and Devil and Tower complete the sequence. Horizontal associations having become vertical ones, a matrix is not needed to associate virtues with Petrarchans, and it has also become too cumbersome. Marziano’s association of suits with groups of trumps is abandoned and the game we know is born.

In this presentation I do not stop to discuss the historical basis for the various orders. In an Appendix in the post following I have prepared a chart with all the known orders and their sources. The four that I am using are, for A, Minchiate and the small handwritten numbers on the Charles VI deck, for B, the Sermo de Ludus of c. 1500, and for C that called variously "Pavia" and "Susio", of 1425-1440.

PART TWO: THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE ORDERS

6. Florence and Bologna
 
Here again is the table with my tentative ur-tarot:

13 World (Fame)  14 Angel (Eternity)
 12 Death
 8 Justice 
 Papa / 4 Pope
 Swords 
 11 Old Man (Time)
 7 Prudence
 Papa / 3 Popess / Emperor
 Coins
 10 Chariot (Pudicitia)
 6 Fortitude
 Papa / 2 Emperor / Empress
  / Popess
 Batons
 9 Love
 5 Temperance
 Papa / 1 Empress / Popess
 Cups

I assume that such a game would start first in Bologna or Florence, because it is in those places that the virtues appear all in a row. Whether it first went from one to the other, or from the place of origin to a different region, is  not easy to say. 

But when we look at what came later, whether in those places or elsewhere, what is seen is a shift from Marziano’s horizontal associations to vertical ones, even as the matrix of both is retained. 
 
What Petrarch did was to take the sequence of moves in a game, whether of chess or cards, and put it in the form of an allegory, one thing defeating another. There are no such allegories in Marziano’s game: for example, when Diana defeats Bacchus, or Bacchus defeats Mercury, that is just something in the game, not an allegory. Marziano makes no mention of any triumph of one god over another. 

But it is different with the virtues and Petrarchans. Love is beaten by Temperance, and war chariots by Fortitude. So the cross-associations turn into vertical ones. Thus Love can be put below Temperance in the order, and likewise, for people used to having to put up with tyrants from outside, Chariot below the virtues as well. After that, the story tells itself: each virtue rules the one before it, and each Petrarchan the one before it.  By this time it is hard to say whether Chariot is Pudicitia or the Fame of a Triumphator, and whether the World is Fame, a World-Ruler, or a representative of Heavenly Fame. So we get, in Florence:

A14F: Florence
13 World (Fame/World Ruler/Guide) 14 Angel (Eternity/Eternal Fame)
 12 Death
 8 Prudence
 Papa / 4 Pope
 Coins
 11 Old Man 
 7 Fortitude
 Papa / 3 Popess / Emperor
 Batons
 10 Chariot
 6 Temperance
 Papa / 2 Emperor / Empress/ Popess
Cups
 9 Justice 
 5 Love
 Papa / 1 Empress/ Popess
Swords 

And a different allegory horizontally: moderation by the triumphal chariot, fortitude in enduring old age, prudence in forestalling death and preparing for eternity. Or perhaps they remove the Popess, so that all the virtues can be in the same column, and only the Angel remains above. This was done eventually, by c. 1500 (1), but we don't know precisely when.

We can imagine a similar shift in Bologna. However it is not clear that Chariot in the beginning was below the virtues. A 1602 tarocchi appropriati by the Bolognese writer Giulio Cesare Croce has Chariot above the virtues, but the usual Bolognese order otherwise. (1) Moreover, for the earliest Bolognese cards, on two sheets of 6 cards each, 11 of the 12 are among the last 12 of the full 21. (2) Since the Chariot is  one of the 12, proably it was along the last 12 also, which would put it after the virtues, with both Love and Chariot before the virtues. However the virtues remain in their characteristic Bolognese order. Prudence could go either as 7th, the order of Wisdom of Solomon 8:7, order, or 8th, that of of Ambrose's Commentary on Luke V:62 (see see Part One, Section 4). Below I choose that of Wisdom of Solomon, which would have been the most familiar to people then. Then Love is associated vertically with Temperance and horizontally with Fortitude, while the Chariot is associated vertially with Fortitude and horizontally with Temperance, i.e. moderation.

  A14B: Bologna
  13 World (Fame/World Ruler/Guide)  14 Angel (Eternity/Eternal Fame)
 12 Death
 8 Justice
 Papa / 4 Pope
 Swords
 11 Old Man 
 7 Prudence
 Papa / 3 Popess / Emperor
 Coins
 10 Chariot
 6 Temperance
 Papa / 2 Emperor / Empress / Popess
 Cups
   9 Fortitude
 5 Love
 Papa / 1 Empress/ Popess
 Batons





Then later, when Chariot is moved below the virtues, both the urges for union (Love) and for domination (Chariot) are triumphed over, i.e. ruled by, the virtues as a whole, except Prudence, which has dropped out. At that point, with 21 Triumphs plus the Fool, the horizontal associations are no longer part of the game, as with five rows there are too many, and the vertical associations are enough.

The Bolognese order of virtues, despite appearing in a few sources, is peculiar. Its sources, Ambrose and Wisdom of Solomon, are simply lists, not a hierarchy. In both Plato and Aquinas, however, Justice and Prudence are explicitly above Fortitude in importance. Fortitude without the guidance of Prudence results in rashness or timidity; without the guidance of Justice it results in injustice. This suggests that the Florentine order is a correction of Bologna's, educationally speaking, hence later. The same is not true in the reverse direction. There the only reason for Fortitude to be last is to associate it with the Chariot, with which it would have been associated horizontally in the ur-tarot. This placement of Fortitude is a reason for thinking that the Bolognese order was earlier than the Florentine. 

The Florentine order then corrects the order of virtues, following that of Plato as already discussed (Part 1, section 4). Then the Charioteer will be associated with Justice. Perhaps they also then remove the Popess, putting all the virtues in one column. Then the horizontal associations will be the same as in Bologna.

Notes to section 6:
1 Depaulis 2007, p. 41 (the strambotto).
2 http://badigit.comune.bologna.it/GCCroce/reader/17_X_026.htm#page/1/mode/2up.
3 Reproduced in Kaplan 1978, pp.128-129 and numerous places online.

7. Intermezzo: the Bagatella and Impichato

Before going on I need to say something about two of the three cards, apart from the Fool and the sequence from Devil to Sun, still to be added. Without addressing yet the Wheel of Fortune, these are the cards known as the Bagatella, Bagatello, or Bagattino early on, and the Impichato or Traditore, the Hanged Man or Traitor. (1)

The card beginning Bagat- is almost invariably first. The only exception is in the Sicilian order, which is a late import into the island and thus far removed from the source. He is a rather unusual figure compared to most of the other triumphs, never a subject of prior visual art that I have found and hardly triumphal at all, even if members of his profession did delight kings by their ability to deceive them with their tricks. I hypothesize that he was chosen as a subject because his title. “Bagatella” had a double meaning, referring to a sleight-of-hand artist, someone who with his hands and distracting talk made little things do magical things, as well as meaning “little thing” itself. As such, it is no wonder that such a figure would be chosen for the first triumph.

The other card of special interest is the Hanged Man, most frequently 12th in the order; specifically in all the B and C orders, and in some A orders, notably in that of the small numbers on the Charkes VI, of the Strambotto and of Minchiate. The exceptions are those of Bologna, probably the Rosenwald, found in Umbria (2), and  any decks in Florence that might have had 4 papi (none is confirmed). In those cases it would have been 13th.

The number 12 has some significance for this figure. Judas was traditionally “the 12th disciple”, typically the last named of 12 in the gospel lists (Matt.10:2-4, Mark 3:16-19; Luke 6:14-16). In the early 15th century, there was also a now well known "shame" poster ordered by antipope John XXIII, attesting to his condottiero Muzio Attendola’s “XII treasons” against him and showing a man hanging by one foot. (3)

In the A order cards he is invariably shown clutching bags of something heavy, the “30 pieces of silver” that Judas received before hanging himself (at right, the Beaux Arts and Charles VI cards). It may not be a coincidence that the associated suit would have been Coins, a kind of visual prompt to the memory. (4).

Complicating the situation, there is also one association between Judas and the number 13, in that he was sometimes considered the 13th guest at the Last Supper. However the same romances also give that number to Jesus and to a vacant seat at the Round Table, considered the death seat. (5) So I would expect that when the Hanged Man was added to the tarot, it was probably 12th in the order; if not that, then 13th is possible.

In both of the proto-tarots above, corresponding to Florence and Bologna. the Old Man is 11 and Death 12. It is now possible to add the Hanged Man in 12th position, which would make Death 13th. It is also possible to add the Bagat at the beginning, in which case the Hanged Man would be 13th and Death 14th. Or the Wheel could be added at 11 instead, or both added and one of the papi removed. Or the Hanged Man could have replaced the card then occupying that placement, especially if it was Prudence.

All such additions, unless exactly matched by subtractions, would destroy the suit's equality with the others. Removing Prudence would also weaken the links between suits and rows of triumphs. The row for Coins could only be linked by default. But why should there be any changes at all? For that I turn to Lombardy.

Notes to section 7:
 1 For Bagatella as a sleight of hand artist: see Caldwell, http://forum.tarothistory.com/viewtopic.php?t=764, 2011, for a 1396 poem quoted by Muratori 1751, pp. 171-172. For Bagatello, Depaulis 2007, p. 42. For Bagattino, Vitali and Zanetti 2005, p. 23. For the names "Impiccato" and "Traditore" see Depaulis 2013a, p. 25. Impichato is in the so-called Steele Sermon, for which Steele 1900.
2 For the order of the Rosenwald, Depaulis 2007, p. 42. It is pictured in Kaplan, 1978, pp 130-131. The date and place are suggested by a page glued to the back of another copy from a book identified by Pratesi, 2017, as printed in Perugia 1501-1502
3 Moakley 1966, p. 95.
4 I owe this suggestion to Emilia Maggio, private communication 2019.
5 Hopper 2000, pp. 133. The13th seat was the Siege Perilous, "wherein never knight sat that he met not death thereby," according to Le Livre de Lancelot del Lac, XXXIX.


8. Lombardy

I hypothesize that the game now goes to Milan and the court of the game-loving Filippo Maria Visconti. Perhaps it is by way of the same Marziano who has brought it there, having picked it up from his time in Florence as a student (1), so that the game of deified heroes is modeled on it. Filippo will want to make improvements and to make the game his own.

To get the Lombard placement of virtues, let us suppose that he notices that after Love and Temperance, in Florence (or not even that, if Love is with the other Petrarchans), there are no immediate vertical associations between Petrarchans and particular virtues, showing the life-concerns articulated by the Petrarchans being ruled by particular virtues. To get that, virtues and Petrarchans could alternate. 
 
In addition, Filippo switches Temperance and Justice. An explanation for doing so is suggested by the handshake on the Cary-Yale Love card, suggesting a marriage contract. He had previously executed a wife for adultery, based on testimony extracted by torture of her alleged lover. (2) However she may have offended him,  we may suppose that he wants it clear to all that Love is above all a contract of mutual obligations, thus ruled by the figure with the scales, Justice, which comes next in the sequence.

Temperance is a virtue whose practice can forestall death. In addition, the cups the lady holds, mixing water and wine, could be seen as those of the Eucharist, the taking of which offers eternal life. The odd gravity-defying trajectory of the earlist Lombard version (near left, PMB "2nd artist" card, late 15th century), typical of the depiction, also suggests the soul passing from one “vehicle” to another, as represented especially with that of Christ in paintings of Mary at the Annunciation, and as imagined by Dante (Purgatorio XXV 80-108).

Let us put such an order in a Marziano-like grid:

13 World (Fame)  14 Angel (Eternity)
 12 Temperance
 8 Fortitude
 Papa / 4 Pope
Cups, Batons
 11 Death
 7 Chariot
 Papa / 3 Popess / Emperor
---
 10 Prudence
 6 Justice
 Papa / 2 Emperor / Empress/ Popess
Coins, Swords
  9 Old Man
 5 Love
 Papa / 1 Empress/ Popess
---

The problem is that there is no longer one virtue to a row. A game connecting rows of triumphs to suits as their extensions is now impossible. But if the subjects are shifted around, except for Prudence, we no longer get the characteristic C placements, which are so radically different from anywhere else that they would have gone back to the earliest times.

I have found only two solutions consistent with the C order. One is to put Prudence as card 2. But then there is no vertical association between it and any Petrarchan, which was the point of the move. The only other possibility is to add one card and subtract one: namely, to put Fortune in its usual place but remove the Popess. Then we get:

C14: Lombardy (Brera-Brambilla type) 
13 World (Fame)  14 Angel (Eternity)
 12 Temperance
 8 Wheel
  Love
 Cups 
 11 Death
 7 Fortitude
 Papa / 3 Pope
 Batons
 10 Prudence
 6 Chariot
 Papa / 2 Emperor 
 Coins
  9 Old Man
 5 Justice
 Papa / 1 Empress
 Swords

Now the game can be played, with the Wheel of Fortune added precisely so as to make that game possible. It is a logical choice, since one of the Visconti castles had a large fresco of Fortuna and her wheel in one of its halls. (3) Such a placement is exemplified by the Brera-Brambilla deck, which we know had just such a Wheel as one of its triumphs, and whose 14 cards per suit would make 14 triumphs appropriate. (4)

The Cary-Yale then continues the innovations, with 16 cards per suit, including female knights and pages in all four suits. That number, as well as the precedent of Marziano, suggests an equal number of triumphs. There are also three cards otherwise seen only in Minchiate Faith, Hope, and Charity.

That they are additions to a previous sequence with only the cardinals is suggested by the feature of a small antitype painted at the bottom of the card: for example, the letters of “Juda” can be seen on the Hope card. Such antitypes were typically found on all seven when they were depicted together (5). yet there is none on the sole surviving cardinal virtue, Fortitude (the four are below). I do not know of examples where the theologicals are with and the cardinals without antitypes.
One problem with the three theologicals is where they would have gone in the order. On the assumption that there is some relationship between their presence here and in Minchiate, they would go one after the other between Temperance and World. Another problem is how to get 16 triumphs from 14 + 3. Some card would have had to be removed. It can’t be the Wheel, because that card is needed in order to achieve one virtue per row. The only solution I can find is that of removing the Pope card, another card, besides the Popess, to which preachers objected, as profaning the office to put him in a card game. 
Another problem is the order of Faith and Hope. While their traditional enunciation was Faith and then Hope, derived from St. Paul, in Minchiate Hope is first. Why is not clear. It may relate to the idea that the Hope of salvation is weaker than the Faith that it will come about and therefore lower in the order, as Aquinas says. (6) Minchiate is not the only place where this order obtains. It can be seen on a monument to a deceased cardinal done sometime before 1422 in a church in Florence. (7) The probable artist is Giovanni dal Ponte, whom some have suggested as a painter of the Rothschild cards. (8) But this order may have been peculiar to Florence. So for Milan we have:

C16: Lombardy (Cary-Yale)
16 Angel
12 Faith/Hope
8 Old Man
4 Justice
Swords
15 World
11 Temperance
7 Wheel
3 Love
Cups
14 Charity
10 Death
6 Fortitude
2 Emperor
Batons
13 Hope/Faith
  9 Prudence
5 Chariot
1 Empress
Coins

Here to save space I have omitted the various alternatives for the papi. But it is still likely that whichever of Empress and Emperor is played last will win the trick, a situation that lasts at least until whenever the practice is established in Piedmont.

In this layout there is a curious analogy between details on the Cary-Yale cards and on corresponding chess pieces, as Lothar Teikemeier has observed. (9) In the first column (from the right above) are the Emperor and Empress, corresponding to the King and Queen on the center of the chess row. In the next column are cards with old men in them, at least on my hypothesis: Lothar simply has a question mark, since both cards are absent. But there is an old man on the Brera-Brambilla Wheel (below, far left) and an old man as Time is in all the early depictions. In chess, on either side of the royals are the bishops, called banners in Italian. I do not know what association old men might have had with banners – perhaps none, or something I don't know about. In the same column and the next are two cards with horses, Chariot and Death (second and third below). In chess, correspondingly, there are the knights, depicted as horse-heads. In the last column of C16 are two cards with towers, World and Angel (below, the two cards on the right) and the pieces furthest from the center in chess are the rooks, shaped liked towers. The pawns correspond to the seven virtues plus Love. Such parallels would surely have pleased Filippo Maria Visconti, an aficionado of different games.
In both the Cary-Yale and the Brera-Brambilla, as I have proposed them, there is reason to add the Wheel but neither the Hanged Man nor the Bagat. Either would make there more trumps than cards per suit. Prudence is conveniently before Death, but substituting the Hanged Man would make it 9th rather than 12th. There is no reason to add either, and every reason against,

Notes to section 8:
1 As reported in Barziza’s funeral oration, Caldwell and Ponzi 2019, p. 101.
3 Welch 1995, p. 14.
4 E.g., Dorez 1904, pp. 52 and 82, has two lists of antitypes relative to virtues in various places, all for the full set of seven.
5 Bandera and Tanzi 2016 and elsewhere.
6 Aquinas 1274, trans. 1920, II.II.17.7, reply 1: “spes dicitur entroitus fidei... per eam homo intrat ad hoc ad hoc stabiliatur et perficiatur in fide.”
7 Sbaraglio and Tartuferi 2016, pp. 39-40.
8 Belossi 1985, pp. 27-35; Fiorini 2006, p. 53, Sbaraglio and Tartuferi 2016, p. 128 (with a question mark). For an opposing view see Caldwell 2007.
9 http://a-tarot.eu/pdf/cy-jpg.jpg, revising and illustrating his 2003 http://trionfi.com/0/c/30.


9. Florence again, perhaps

Whether such an assortment of triumphs, adding the three theologicals and removing the Popess, was Filippo’s idea or came from Florence, cannot be said with any assurance, since the same cards are found in Minchiate, although there with the Pope part of the order. There we would expect Hope to be first in the order, as part of a pre-existing tradition.

What we cannot say is whether the Wheel would have part of the order at that point. Below is the ur-tarot with the theologicals added but not the Wheel:

A16: Proto-Minchiate, Florence
16 Angel
12 Hope
8 Justice
4 Love
Swords
15 World
11 Death
7 Prudence
3 Pope
Coins
14 Charity
10 Old Man
6 Fortitude
2 Emperor
Batons
13 Faith
  9 Chariot
5 Temperance
1 Empress
Cups

With the Wheel, the table looks much the same except that everything after Chariot will have moved up one, with the Angel above the line.

If in Florence the Wheel was a late addition, that would explain its differing placements in two Florentine sources, the Strambotto vs. the small handwritten numbers added to the Charles VI cards. In the Charles VI the Wheel is 10 and the Chariot 11, while it is the reverse in the Strambotto.(1) Either the two were unaccountably exchanged, a move that the players would be expected to resist, or some players put the new card before Chariot and some after. The situation resolved itself in the Minchiate order, where Wheel comes before Chariot.

In the above, with the Wheel added, Death would be 12 and again the Hanged Man could be inserted at 12, making Death 13. Adding the Bagat would provide a reason for moving Prudence to be with Minchiate's other distinctive cards. between Hope and Faith, so as to keep the Hanged Man at 12; but it can't get there without having two virtues in the same row.

A19: Non-starting proto-Minchiate
17 Charity 18 World, 19 Angel
16 Faith
12 Hanged Man
8 Justice
4 Pope
Swords
15 Prudence
11 Old Man
7 Fortitude
3 Emperor
Coins, Batons
14 Hope
10 Chariot
6 Temperance
2 Empress
Cups
13 Death
  9 Wheel
5 Love
1 Bagatello
----

To continue playing Marziano's game, it is necessary to add two more cards, Devil and Tower, and another column, pushing Prudence into the bottom row.

A21: Proto-Minchiate
21 Angel
20 World
16 Hope
12 Hanged Man
8 Justice
4 Pope
Swords
19 Charity
15 Lightning
11 Old Man
7 Fortitude
3 Emperor
Batons
18 Faith
14 Devil
10 Chariot
6 Temperance
2 Empress
Cups
17 Prudence
13 Death
9 Wheel
5 Love
1 Bagatello
Coins

But four or five additions, in three or four places in the order, are too many to add all at once. They need more of a foundation. I turn to Ferrara for the next step.

Note to section 9:
1 Depaulis 2007, pp. 40-42.


10. Ferrara

Let us now impose on the grid the ur-tarot’s cards in Ferrarese order, assuming 14 cards per suit. There are now two cards between virtues, making consistent what in Lombardy was an anomoly.  This of course will be after Wheel has been added in Milan. Initially we get:

13 Angel    14 Justice    15 World
12 Death
8 Fortitude
4 Pope
Batons
11 Prudence
7 Chariot
3 Popess
Coins
10 Old Man
6 Love
2 Emperor
---
9 Wheel
5 Temperance
1 Empress
Cups

There is an obvious problem: Justice is not in the matrix, to be the virtue corresponding to one of the suits. Also, there are 15 cards instead of 14. To keep that same number, the solution is to remove the Popess and add a card below the matrix. We get:

14 World
13 Justice
9 Old Man
5 Love
Swords
12 Angel
8 Wheel
4 Temperance
Cups
11 Death
7 Fortitude
3 Pope
Batons
10 Prudence
6 Chariot
2 Emperor
Coins
1 Empress

But now it is unbalanced in terms of gender, with two male dignitaries in the matrix and the empress unconnected to a suit. Surely an Empress belongs over the kings and queens.I think this is where the Bagatella makes his entrance. As a rather marginal figure in the medieval world, being put below the line would have a certain allegorical significance.

B14: Ferrara
14 World
13 Justice
9 Old Man
5 Love
Swords
12 Angel
8 Wheel
4 Temperance
Cups
11 Death
7 Fortitude
3 Pope
Batons
10 Prudence
6 Chariot
2 Emperor
Coins
1 Bagatella

In support of Ferrara’s being the place where the Bagatella was added is the word itself. Bagatella in the sense of “little thing” was a feminine noun in Italian. When the word became applied to a man, as in the Sermo de ludo, it was El Bagatella, masculine but with the same spelling. In contrast, in Bologna it was Bagattino, the word for the smallest coin, and in Florence Bagatello, conforming to Italian grammar. (1) They are both further removed from the source than in Ferrara.

The Fool might have entered the game in Ferrara as well. If there can be one figure below the matrix, there can just as well be a second, but with the value of a wild card instead of a triumph. Another reason for Ferrara is that in those times there was a famous court Fool there, Gonella, attached to Marquess Niccolo III, who died in 1441. (2) Jean Fouquet did a portrait of him in the 1440s, probably posthumously. (3)

In a 16 card grid, all four dignitaries can be included. In this case the Bagatella is definitely needed, if the virtues are to appear in all four rows.

B16: Ferrara
16 World
12 Prudence
8 Chariot
4 Popess
Coins
15 Justice
11 Old Man
7 Love
3 Emperor
Swords
14 Angel
10 Wheel
6 Temperance
2 Empress
Cups
13 Death
9 Fortitude
5 Pope
1 Bagatella
Batons

As in the proto-Minchiates imagined in the previous section, Prudence is 12th in the order, but now with a virtue in every row; only one more card had to be added, the Popess. This is a believable way in which the Hanged Man would have substituted for Prudence. Just before Death, an image of the fate meted out to traitors would be hard to resist for a game-loving ruler such as one of the Estense, who often had to be concerned about possible rivals in their own family. Loyalty is prudent, and shameful death is the sentence a prudent prince metes out to traitors. Even in c. 1550 the association seems to have been remembered in this region, judging from Imperiali's poem.(4)

At this point a variant of the Ferrarese order worthy of consideration is one using only the PMB “first artist's subjects, eliminating the virtue cards altogether, since they are implied by the suits, and altering Justice to become the Fame of the rider on the horse fighting for Justice.

B/C 14: PMB “first artist” cards
13 Angel
12 Fame (former Justice)
8 Wheel
4 Popess
Swords
11 Death
7 Chariot
3 Emperor
Batons
10 Traitor
6 Love
2 Empress
Cups
9 Old Man
5 Pope
1 Bagatella
Coins
Fool

Since the PMB is Lombard rather than Ferrarese, this arrangement would have spread to Milan, even though its alteration of the Justice card so as to add the rider suggests a former placement in the Ferrarese order. (5)

Notes to section 10:
1. See section 6, note 1.
2 Gonella: for his being of the time of Nicollo III, online there is the New Monthly Magazine, 1826, p. 163. Some sources give Borso as the lord in question, but he is too late for Gonella to have been the subject of Fouquet’s painting. The earliest source seems to be the Novelle of Bandello, for which see Novelle, ed. Bottari, Borghi, 1833, online. A recent work accepting Niccolo is Humfrey and Lucco, 1998, p. 88.
4 See note 7 in Part One, Section 4. The poem includes the names of the tarot subjects going down from the World, and after the Devil has "Then comes Death, and brings another dance, prudence, and malice down here..."
5 Such a sequence is suggested by Lothar Teikemeier at http://forum.tarothistory.com/viewtopic.php?p=16421#p16421.


11. The five added cards

Now it is a matter of incorporating all five of the added cards. In what city this would have occurred is difficult to say.

It is possible that two of them were already added, Devil and Tower, to a proto-Minchiate, securing for Prudence the place in the bottom row of a 21 card sequence with Hope, Faith, and Charity (see section 8). Then it is simply a matter of exchanging the theologicals for the celestials.

None of the celestials is in the Cary-Yale, and none of the theologicals are in any tarocchi with a celestial. Moreover, in the Minchiate, which has both, the theologicals are in the precise place in the sequence where the celestials are in the tarocchi, immediately after Tower. So it is not improbable that the one series replaced the other. In that way, too, Petrarch’s cosmic time is put into the sequence, and it also now seems less preachy.

That the celestials were added as Time may explain why Alciato in 1544 called the card between Death and Devil Fama instead of Temperance. (1) In Petrarch Fama was between Death and Time. And since Fama is, or should be, a matter of virtue, it belongs with a virtue card rather than with Devil or Tower. Some later C order cards even gave the water-pouring lady a banner with the words "Fama Sol", e.g. Viéville in 1650 Paris, below left; notice also the wings on her baton. (2)

Between Devil and Tower on the one hand and the three celestials on the other, however, it is not really clear which scenario came first. One argument in favor of the celestials first, with the Devil and Tower then inserted between Death and the Star, is that supplied by Piscina, in terms of the medieval cosmograph, in which the terrestrial world of earth and water is connected to those of the celestial spheres by two “means”, air and fire.(3) In medieval imagery, when the soul tries to rise to heaven, it is either dragged down by demons or helped upwards by angels. An example is the so-called Triumph of Death in Pisa of c. 1349, in which Death comes by air to waylay the living, and demons fly about trying to grab its victims.(4) A demon’s captive is vividly portrayed in the early 16th century Bolognese Beaux Arts version, with a human being between its teeth (above, second from left).(5)

After the sphere of air comes that of fire, which was also the card’s name in Lombardy. In the A and B regions it is called Saetta, meaning lightning, which presumably originates from the same sphere of fire. On the Bolognese version (above, third from left), fire is dominant and lightning only implied; the Charles VI (above far right) has both.

These particular cards, although with multiple references, serve to give this part of the sequence a sense of the Last Days, a time when devils roam the earth, the earth opens up, and fire and hailstones fall from heaven, as in the Cary Sheet version, reminiscent of Apocalypse illustrations such as in the second from left, detail of Folio 20  the Cloisters Apocalypse (in the medieval collection of the Metropolitan Museum of New York, dating to c. 1330 century Normandy).

In the midst of such terrors is the woman clothed with the sun, the moon at her feet and twelve stars over her head (Rev. 12: 1, the main subject of folio 20r), who gives birth to a child taken up to heaven, interpreted as the Second Coming of Christ. In that way the celestials could be an extension of the apocalyptic imagery of the previous two cards. In any case, the five cards become a transition both spatially, in terms of the medieval picture of the cosmos, and temporally, leading up to the triumph of Eternity at the end of Time.

Among the celestial spheres, why stars are first instead of the moon needs an explanation. Again there is Piscina, who said that the three celestials are in order of utility and nobility, with the stars the lowest, then the moon, then the sun. (6) Along the same lines, it is easy for the players to identify the order: the dimmest first, the brightest third. Yet this is not very educational, as it violates the actual order as known at that time. It seems to me that there is an additional justification for this order, of a more moralistic nature.

Let us recall the theologicals’ Minchiate order: Hope, Faith, Charity. It seems to me that if one series replaced the other, there might have been an association in meaning as well.
Hope is what the Star of Bethlehem represents, as we see depicted on the A and B versions of the card. The Bolognese card shows people resembling the magi coming from the east. Two of them wear “Phrygian” caps, which the Renaissance would have known from ancient pseudo-oriental Mithraic reliefs. (7) Another confirmation is from an 18th century sheet of Bolognese cartomantic meanings, where the Star card has the meaning “gift”. (8) The Minchiate version has one man on a horse bearing an elaborate chalice (or astronomical device) (above, second from left); Bonifacio Vannozzi in 1747 explicitly identified this Star as that over Bethlehem. (9) Also, there is an Andorazione delle Magi by the Bembo workshop of Cremona (a shop famous today for its two partially surviving tarot decks) with three figures in the background much like the two figures on a Ferrara card, who in turn are similar to Bologna’s three. (10)
The Minchiate Moon card's sundial reminds us that both the moon and the sun have to do with Time. What the man is doing is clearer in the Bolognese and Charles VI versions, with two men. In the first, one of the men holds an armillary sphere, a device that shows the constellations in relation to the paths of the moon, the sun and the planets. In the Charles VI the comparable object is a book. The two men seem to be determining something, probably relating to astrology, in relation to the moon as a point of reference. That is also the function of Faith, as a point of reference from the heavens, in a world that is too dark for us to find our bearings without it. A more somber version is that of the Cary Sheet, in which the moon lights a winding path away from a giant crayfish lurking in the depths. A painting capturing the mood, with the moon as the Ascended Virgin, is Hieronymus Bosch’s St. John of Patmos, c. 1500. (11)

For the Sun, what we see on the Charles VI and Bolognese card is the Fate Clotho holding out the thread, symbolizing an individual life, which Atropos will cut, symbolizing death, at the time measured by Lachesis. An example is a 16th century “triumph of death” tapestry, part of a series representing the six Petrarchans (12).
On the card, however, the Sun shines overhead, representing the God who offers salvation from that fate, an act of charity to undeserving souls. The sun was a common metaphor for Christ, as in Prudentius’ Morning Hymn: (13)
Nox et tenebrae et nubila,
confusa mundi et turbida,
lux intrat, albescit. polus,
Christus venit, discedite.
(Night, darkness, fog,
indistinct and confused things of the world,
the light penetrates, the sky brightens;
Christ is coming: Depart!)
In the Bible Christ is the sol iusticia of Malachi 4:2 and the lux mundi and lucem vitae of John 8:12. Christ as the sun was a frequent theme in art. Dürer did an engraving of Christ as sol iusticia in 1518; Bosch used the metaphor in his Haywain, c. 1500, of which the relevant detail, people on top of a hay wagon headed into an abyss, is at right. (14)

Moreover, if we look at the earliest Lombard versions of the cards, we can see visual similarities between the celestials and the corresponding theological, as if to aid the players in adjusting to the substitution. (15) The lady on the Star card looks to the upper right, just as in the Cary-Yale Hope card. On the Moon card, the lady holds her right arm up and her left arm to the side, just as on the Faith card. And on the Sun card there is an infant and a round fiery object, just as in the Charity card, even if now it is the child and not the mother who holds the fiery object.
 At this point, with Prudence removed and five rows of triumphs compared to the original three, it is as impossible as it is impractical to maintain Marziano’s game of rows and columns. The grid is abandoned, along with whatever rule made the rows significant.

In Florence there are two decks, Minchiate retaining the three theologicals while putting the celestials at the end of the order as in the game of Triumphs. Minchiate also locates Prudence with the theologicals, probably to keep all the cards not shared with Triumphs together. But with Prudence in that particular place, it is also possible to play the old game. I like to think that when the young Lorenzo de’ Medici played Minchiate with Luigi Pulci, (16) what they played was the old game of rows and columns from Marziano, with a cardinal virtue in each row:

A24: proto-Minchiate
24 Angel
20 Star
16 Hope
12 Traitor
8 Justice
Papa 4
23 World
19 Charity
15 Lightning
11 Old Man
7 Fortitude
Papa 3
22 Sun
18 Faith
14 Devil
10 Chariot
6 Temperance
Papa 2
21 Moon
17 Prudence
13 Death
9 Wheel
5 Love
Papino 1

Notes to section 11:
1  Alciato 1544/1547, pp. 72-73.
2 Online in Gallica.
3 Caldwell, Depaulis and Ponzi 2010, pp. 22-23.
4 Not shown because its deteriorated condition makes it hard to see the details, but it is at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Francesco_Traini.
5 These earliest Bolognese images are from an early 16th century sheet now in the Musée des Beaux Arts, Paris.
6 Caldwell et al 2010, pp. 24-25.
8 Vitali and Zanetti 2005, p. 80.
9 Quoted in Andrea Vitali, n.d. 3.
10 The Bembo work is in the Denver Art Museum, dated to c. 1445, with additions in the 1460s, by Bandera and Tanzi 2013, p. 67.
11 The Cary Sheet, c. 1500, is at the Beinecke Library of Yale University. St. John the Evangelist on Patmos is held by the Gemäldegalerie, Berlin.
13 The Hymns of Prudentius, https://www.gutenberg.org/files/14959/14959-h/14959-h.htm#p02o, for the Latin. The English is my literal translation.
14 The Haywain is held by the Museo del Prado, Madrid.
15 Dummett 1986, pp. 120-135
16 Pratesi 1988. The sentence in Pulci’s letter is “Pure, se havessi cavallo, ho sìgran voglia di rivedertichio verrei costìper isvisarti alle Minchiate, a passadieci, asbaraglino, come tusai chio ti concio.


12. Conclusion

The proposed hypothesis is that the game of triumphs starts with a didactic purpose, probably in Florence but possibly in Milan, to teach the cardinal virtues and their applicability to universal concerns of life, by means of a 4x3 matrix connecting one cardinal virtue, Petrarchan and ruler to each of the four suits and some rule giving priority to that row of trumps. From its place of origin it spreads to the other centers, which add and subtract cards and, most likely, replace horizontal associations by rows with similar associations vertically in the columns.

The result is more or less equal spacing between virtues, which still can be seen if we imagine Prudence in the place of the Hanged Man and ignore the five cards from Devil to Fire. In Lombardy it is mostly one card in between; in Ferrara, two. Up to four additions from elsewhere are welcomed in Florence (Fool, Magician, Wheel, Hanged Man), which adds them in the placements they have elsewhere. Florence adds five more, probably originating there as a result of replacing the theologicals with celestials. There are now two games, one being a proto-Minchiate, now of 24 triumphs plus the Fool, but with a prior 4x4 matrix traceable from its placement of Prudence. The other is the ludus triumphorum, a standard 21 plus the Fool across regions, in which the older cards are ordered in the older ways and the 5 new ones in the standard way. 
 
This development can be expressed in a flow chart:

One possible line of transmission that I have not put in, solely because doing so would be too messy, is directly between Bologna and Piedmont. The "equal papi" and Angel higher than World rules could have come to Piedmont by way of returning graduates from the University of Bologna. It does not seem to me as likely as from nearby Lombardy, because in other respects the game was like Lombardy's, but it is possible.

 Many of these arrows of transmission are in doubt, hence the question marks (put next to the part that is in doubt, if two directions are indicated). My argument for Bolognese priority is in bits and pieces here and there: the "equal papi" rule suggests a Ghibelline perspective in which the Pope is no higher than the Emperor; that the three virtues are in a row seems more primitive than their being spread out, and the Bolognese order , with Fortitude high, seems the most primitive of all. ; and there was a strong tradition, in multiple sources, of Bolognese origin, even convering on what turn out, beyond what was likely to have been known, to be similar dates, of around 1420, a reasonable enough time. It is true thatFlorence was more prominent as a center of handicrafts and art, but that is only a factor once the game becomes popular. (1)  On the other hand, the Lombard cards show the closest fit to Petrarch, as I argued in Part One. Likewise it is not clear where the theological virtues would have been added, in Florence or in Lombardy, even if it was Florence where they survived in a separate game.

In going from 14 to 16 to 21, changing the order of virtues and the nature of the game in the process, the grid plays an important role: with it we can see how the Wheel and Bagatella needed to be added to the sequence in order to continue to play Marziano’s game, the first of these cards in Milan and the second in Ferrara. The addition of the three theological virtues then explains the presence of the three celestials later, either as prompted by the Devil and Tower or as prompting them instead.

This hypothesis opposes in particular the idea that the subjects were randomly chosen and arranged. Games are typically formed according to a conception. Depending on the purpose, some conceptions are more pleasing to consumers than others. In the 15th century games of chance were pleasing to some but not to others; others liked games of strategy and memory; and there were also educational games, as seen in chess and the games that taught the virtues.

It also merits higher consideration than other hypotheses that do have a source or sources but not ones that single out just the subjects needed for special emphasis, more or less the same as the ones that were chosen and in more or less the same order as we find them. Such sources only incompletely do the job required of them, which is to produce a series like that in the tarocchi.

Admittedly it is still only a hypothesis, one among several, all awaiting further evidence. But without hypotheses, we don’t know where to look. Perhaps more evidence can be found: in children’s games, games of the time with other names than trionfi, games to teach virtues, games with ranked suits, board games with grids, and lists that have hitherto been thought to be incomplete. With so many old documents being scanned onto the internet, what one finds depends in large manner on one’s search terms.

If nothing is found, we remain in a state of ignorance. Absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. In Florence the game of Triumphs was not legalized until 1450; (2) but there may have been good reason for the game not to be recorded in arrests. The authorities did not care about children’s games, especially if they were educational, and tended not to enforce the law in such cases even for adults, if they were discreet. Records would be sparse in some areas for other reasons. In Milan a vast number were destroyed in the uprising after Filippo Maria Visconti’s death. In the continual wars that afflicted Italy over the next hundred years, more records would be destroyed. Then there was the Napoleonic war, the Risorgomento and the two world wars.

I can only vaguely assign dates to the invention of the game and its proposed two stages of transmission. Games with trumps, as we have seen, already existed by the early 1420s: Marziano’s, Karnöffel, and probably Eight Emperors. The first and third of these games are documented in three of the proposed later centers of the game of Triumphs. This fact gives reason to suspect that in those same centers games with permanent trumps might not have just faded away and then reappeared, rediscovering the idea of trumps, twenty years later, but rather have evolved from the old in evolutionary steps perhaps within a few years.

Ross Caldwell has argued that such a lag between invention and first report, close to twenty years, is highly improbable, because after 1442 there is a surviving report of the game every three to five years at least, and the same would be true before 1442 (the 1440 report was not known then); so it would have been invented at most five years before. (3) I have already given reasons in Part I, Section 1, of this essay against this argument. It seems to me that it only works if the game before 1440 (or 5 years earlier) (a) is the same as that after in the same city, with the same rules and complexity, (b) with the same amount of attention given to it by noteworthy people, and (c) in a city which itself has such a frequency of later reports.

I have given reasons for doubting the first condition: it may well have been a children’s game. As for the second, the period between 1430 and 1439 in Florence did not have such occasions for noteworthy deck production for noteworthy persons as in 1438-1440, which saw both the Council of Florence and the Battle of Anghieri (when Florence defeated its perennial enemy Visconti, followed by the 1440 deck, a gift to one of Florence’s main military leaders). Deck production for notable persons makes a deck noteworthy.

Florence does fit the third condition. But since the first two are not fulfilled, we cannot rule out an earlier date. Even more, we cannot rule out that the game was not invented someplace where there was not the same frequency of later reports, notably Bologna, where there are only two reports for the whole forty years after 1440. (4) There is also the information that a 1442 hat merchant, reportedly selling trionfi (although this is not yet confirmed in primary sources) in Ferrara was a Bolognese.(5) This is after the game first became fashionable (as recorded in Florence for a hand-painted deck) and even after the first record in Ferrara (in February). If he was selling a Bolognese product (even if that is not a safe assumption, it is a reasonable possibility), when it would have been invented before spreading elsewhere cannot be estimated, except within 30 years or s, according to historians' rule of thumb. Later accounts there, of unknown veracity, point to the 1420s or earlier. (6)

In 1442 Ferrara it is a game for children; even in 1457 the order for 70 card decks in Ferrara suggests a 14 trump (14x5) game (although it might have been 48 + 22). (7) In Florence, however, the proliferation of manuscripts and wedding chests with similar designs starting a little after 1440 (8) are not what we would expect if it was a children’s game only. Something did happen within a few years of 1440: it could have been the invention of the game or the modification of an old one. It is easy enough to play a new game with an old deck (and its order of trumps); and as children grew weary of the didactics they would naturally think of abandoning that game themselves. Preserving the horizontal connections vertically might have been an adult's attempt to keep the didactics even in its new form. The new game then allows the trump sequence more cards. 1440 is a kind of touchstone, the time of the first transmission would have been before 1440 and the second after then. at which time there may have been at least two versions, until the versions with fewer triumphs died out.

I do not expect this hypothesis to be valid in every detail; it may even prove totally false. Yet recourse to a Marziano-like matrix combining three hierarchical sources, seems to me at least to explain things that other proposals don’t: (a) why these particular cards in that general order; (b) why one part of the sequence is invariant among the three regions, which otherwise has small variations; and (c) why the virtues are where they are in their characteristic placements in the three regions.

Notes to section 12:
1 Vitali 2003-2007./ To summarize: there is a 17th century portrait with the annotation that it is of “Prince Fibbia, inventor of tarocchini”, of whom Vitali found documentation confirming his presence in Bologna and death there in 1421. Vitali also found a 1736 account, an undated chronicle ending in 1680, maintaining that the game was invented there to commemorate the strife between the local Guelfs and Ghibellines. There is also a 1472 biography of St. Bernardino that mentions the burning of triumph cards in 1423 Bologna, for which see Vitali 2009. Vitali concedes that earlier reports of this bonfire do not mention triumph cards, nor the Latin record of the sermon, which says only "carticellae et consimilia", cards and similar. But given that the Latin version was only a summary of a much earlier sermon delivered in the vernacular, and that the saint was usually of "scrupulous accuracy in his listing of everything", this "et consimilia", in Vitali's opinion,"sounds excessively summarizing", so that the 1472 account specifying triumphs could well have "inferred this information from ancient sources".
2 Pratesi 2015b.
3 Caldwell 2007, pp. 51-57.
4 Ibid., p. 52.
5 Caldwell at http://www.trionfi.com/0/e/r71/bio/burdochi.html, citing Franceschini 1993, pp. 221-222. These pages and 220 are reproduced at http://forum.tarothistory.com/viewtopic.php?f=12&t=334&p=7197&hilit=Burdochi#p7197.
6 See footnote 1 of this section.
7 http://www.trionfi.com/0/e/nof71/02.html; thttp://www.trionfi.com/0/e/nof71/16.hml
8 https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Petrarch%27s_triumphs.Their first documentation is in 1441, a letter from Matteo de’ Pasti to Piero de’ Medici, reported in Chambers 1970, pp. 94-95, describing a Triumph of Fame with elephants and a seated lady.


Bibliography for Part Two, including links to those works accessible online (as of Nov., 2019)
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BANDERA, Sandrina, and TANZI, Marco, 2013. "quelle carte de triumphi che se fanno a Cremona": I tarocchi di Bembo, Skira, Milan.
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